# Engineering Physics

Engineering Physics, To teach students basic concepts and principles of engineering physics, relate them to laboratory experiments and.

Course Objectives:
To teach students basic concepts and principles of physics, relate them to laboratory experiments and their applications.

Prerequisite Courses, if any:
Fundamentals of: optics, interference, diffraction polarization, wave-particle duality, semiconductors and magnetism.

Course Outcomes:
On completion of the course, the learner will be able to–
CO1: Develop an understanding of interference, diffraction, and polarization; connect it to few engineering applications.
CO2: Learn the basics of lasers and optical fibers and their use in some applications.
CO3: Understand concepts and principles in quantum mechanics. Relate them to some applications.
CO4: Understand the theory of semiconductors and their applications in some semiconductor devices.
CO5: Summarize the basics of magnetism and superconductivity. Explore a few of their technological applications.
CO6: Comprehend use of concepts of physics for Non-Destructive Testing. Learn some properties of nanomaterials and their application.

Unit I Wave Optics

Interference

• Introduction to electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic spectrum
• Interference in a thin film of uniform thickness (with derivation)
• Interference in thin-film wedge shape (qualitative)
• Applications of interference: testing optical flatness, anti-reflection coating Diffraction
• Diffraction of light
• Diffraction at a single slit, conditions for principal maxima and minima, the diffraction pattern
• A diffraction grating, conditions for principal maxima and minima starting from resultant amplitude equations, diffraction pattern.
• Rayleigh’s criterion for resolution, resolving power of telescope and grating
• Polarization
• Polarization of light, Malus law
• Double refraction, Huygen’s theory of double refraction
• Applications of polarization: LCD

Unit II Laser and Optic Fibre Laser

• Basics of laser and its mechanism, characteristics of laser
• Semiconductor laser: Single Hetro-junction laser
• Gas laser: CO2 laser
• Applications of lasers: Holography, IT, industrial, medical, Optic Fiber
• Introduction, parameters: Acceptance Angle, Acceptance Cone, Numerical Aperture
• Types of optical fiber- step index and graded index
• Attenuation and reasons for losses in optic fibers (qualitative)
• Communication system: basic building blocks
• Advantages of optical fiber communication over conventional methods.

Unit III Quantum Mechanics

• De-Broglie hypothesis
• Concept of phase velocity and group velocity (qualitative)
• Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
• Wave-function and its physical significance
• Schrodinger’s equations: time-independent and time-dependent
• Application of Schrodinger’s time-independent wave equation
• Particle enclosed in infinitely deep potential well (Particle in RigidBox)
• Particle in Finite potential well (Particle in Non Rigid box) (qualitative)
• Tunneling effect, Tunneling effect examples (principle only): Alpha Decay,
• Scanning Tunneling Microscope, Tunnel diode
• Introduction to quantum computing

Unit IV Semiconductor Physics

• Free electron theory (Qualitative) solids
• Opening of bandgap due to internal electron diffraction due to lattice Band theory of solids.
• The effective mass of electron Density of states
• Fermi Dirac distribution function
• The conductivity of conductors and semiconductors
• Position of Fermi level in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors (with derivations
based on carrier concentration)
• Working of PN junction on the basis of the band diagram
• Expression for barrier potential (derivation)
• Ideal diode equation
• Applications of PN junction diode: Solar cell (basic principle with band diagram) IV characteristics and Parameters, ways of improving the efficiency of solar cell
• Hall effect: Derivation for Hall voltage, Hall coefficient, applications of Hall effect

Unit V Magnetism and Superconductivity Magnetism

• Magnetism
• Origin of magnetism
• Classification of magnetism on the basis of permeability (qualitative)
• Applications of magnetic devices: transformer cores, magnetic storage, magneto-optical recording.
• Superconductivity
• Introduction to superconductivity; Properties of superconductors: zero electrical resistance, critical magnetic field, persistent current, Meissner effect
• Type I and Type II superconductors
• Low and high-temperature superconductors (introduction and qualitative)
• AC/DC Josephson effect; SQUID: basic construction and principle of working; Applications of SQUID
• Applications of superconductors

Unit VI Non-Destructive Testing and Nanotechnology

• Non Destructive Testing
• Classification of Non-destructive testing methods
• Principles of physics in Non-destructive Testing
• Advantages of Non-destructive testing methods
• Acoustic Emission Testing
• Ultrasonic (thickness measurement, flaw detection)